- Cama-i, quyana tailuci!
- (Central Yup’ik)
- "Greetings, thank you for coming!"
On April 20, 2021 the Governor’s Teacher Retention and Recruitment Working Group released a report and results from teacher surveys to identify the root causes of teacher retention and recruitment challenges in Alaska. In conjunction with the survey results, the working group also released a framework for action called the TRR Action Plan. These documents can be downloaded by clicking the icons below.
The TRR Action Plan provides the information necessary to address the root causes of Alaska’s educator recruitment and retention challenges. The recommendations and framework propose six essential areas for practical, professional, and policy recommendations.
The TRR working group also utilized existing research along with previously published reports on the topic specific to Alaska. The TRR Survey gathered data from over 4,000 educators including preferred choice rankings, interviews, and written comments.
“I would like to thank the members of the Teacher Recruitment and Retention working group for the many hours they spent together over the past year. Their works provides us with a framework for collaboratively addressing the myriad of issues that result in high teacher and principal turnover in our schools. I look forward to working with educators, policy-makers, and fellow Alaskans to keep attract and keep great educators for our students, Commissioner Michael Johnson said.
The purpose of this working group is to review the root causes of Alaska’s teacher retention and recruitment issues and propose solutions to better attract and retain great teachers. Knowing the cornerstone of a great educational program starts with a great teacher, this working group will seek to problem solve this component of the system to ensure Alaska can provide an excellent education for every student every day. The Commissioner of Education, with the help of this working group, will develop a plan that proposes practical, professional, and policy recommendations for the Governor through research-based methods as well as represented stakeholder groups.
"The cornerstone of a great educational program starts with a great teacher. Alaska for too long has suffered from high teacher turnover rates and an inability to attract and retain quality teachers in some of the most remote parts of our state.
Therefore, I’ve instructed the Commissioner of Education to assemble a working group made up of teachers, administrators, and others to review the root causes of our retention and recruitment issues, including reviewing working conditions and benefits in order to attract and retain great teachers. The Commissioner, with the help of this working group will develop a plan that addresses this issue." – Governor Mike Dunleavy, 2020 State of the State Address
The working group is made up of members, advisors, and legislative observers representing Alaska regionally; rural, urban schools; teacher, administrator, student, school board roles; early career to long-term experience; Pre-K, K-12, higher education; and practitioners, support organizations, policy makers. Members will provide insights and discussion around the topics of:
- existing literature on retention,
- existing literature on recruitment,
- new research on priorities for leaving,
- new research on priorities for staying,
- integrated solutions with current reality,
- findings and recommendations,
- and review of written reports.
Timeline for Completing Major Tasks
Meeting Schedule and Agenda
Summary Meeting Notes
March 27, 2021:
At the final meeting, the draft recommendations report was reviewed, discussed, and validated by the working group. We feel the report, now called the TRRaction Plan, has been fine-tuned through this process. We have recommitted ourselves to the understanding that this report is not a final report to be placed on a shelf, rather an action plan that focuses us as a state on where to spend our time moving forward. Our next steps include how to market the TRRaction Plan, continue sharing it, and then forming the suggested task forces and committees to continue the work. This report will be submitted to DEED by April 12, 2021 and made public shortly thereafter.
February 13, 2021:
The working group reviewed survey data results in full and by various subgroups and started connecting results to recommendations. Common topics include addressing retirement (hybrid retirement structure), new and improved recruitment efforts, creative means of addressing competitive salaries, strengthening leadership, streamlining certification, creating a framework for induction to distribute to districts, timing of funding (pink slips, uncertainty of jobs, possibility of forward), and the importance and improvement of school climate. We also discussed grow-your-own educator programs, although this topic is not as relevant in the survey, it did arise from other data collection efforts. Further, we brainstormed our framework for moving forward with the recommendations. Additionally, we agreed to release survey results sooner rather than later as a separate report and will include those results in the final recommendation report as well.
December 12, 2020:
The working group agrees we want to make sure that what we end up with is something actionable and not just theoretical. To that end, we started connecting draft results to ideas and recommendations. We discussed the need for a higher survey response rate (currently only 17%) to ensure the weight of the education workforce drives the outcomes. We outlined a marketing campaign to increase the survey response rate through the working group connecting to each of their associations and colleagues. To further brainstorm ideas for recommendations connected to the current research, we created optional, small discussion groups based on topics. We solidified our timeline, end dates, and final meeting. Throughout this process we are starting to create a vision of what the outcomes are actually going to look like as we get closer to the end.
Articles: December Reading List
Alaska AHEC Program 2019 Annual Report. (2019). University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Center for Rural Health and Health Workforce.
Becher, A. & Lefstein, A. (2020). Teaching as a clinical profession: Adapting the medical model. Journal of Teacher Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487120972633
Burke, P. F., Schuck, S., Aubusson, P., Buchanan, J., Louviere, J. J., & Prescott, A. (2013). Why do early career teachers choose to remain in the profession? The use of best-worst scaling to quantify key factors. International Journal of Education Research, 62(2013), 259-268.
Bunde, C. (2001). Committee Report on the Statewide Teacher Shortage: House special committee on education. Juneau, AK.
Teng, M. (2020). Going digital with recruiting and hiring: Moving the recruiting and hiring process online doesn’t mean lowering standards or quality. School Business Affairs. September 2020, 30-31.
November 21, 2020:
The working group reviewed the preliminary results from the educator survey. Given the number of respondents, the group agreed on trying to increase the number of respondents. With limited capacity at DEED to reach out to respondents, the group brainstormed other techniques to increase the response rate. In terms of draft results, the group discussed how salary and retirement benefits rose to the top and the need to disaggregate results to better understand them within the context of various subgroups of educators (for example, early career vs. mid career teachers; rural vs. urban schools). We concluded with an eye towards recommendations, the possibility of short-term and long-term recommendations, the format of one or multiple reports, and the associated timing of those recommendation reports.
October 27, 2020:
The working group spent a significant amount of time discussing the teacher retention and recruitment survey, the roll out of the survey, how to get as many educators as possible to take it, and extra details. We had an update from the recruitment team and reviewed questions for the focus groups. We reviewed the questions for the leavers interviews as well. We discussed the importance of gathering data prior to making judgements on the results - being mindful of not guessing the results. Finally, we discussed next steps of moving from research results to recommendations.
October 13, 2020:
Committee members tested the survey prior to our October 13 discussion. We then walked through the survey together and discussed changes to language and format. We also discussed how to make sure the purpose is shared in a way that will encourage participation. We are on schedule to launch October 19. We will share the survey at the Alaska Superintendents Association meeting on October 20 to ask superintendents to encourage participation. We will leave the survey open at this time until we determine the right time to close it.
September 26, 2020:
We held focus groups in August to evaluate and give feedback on a draft survey. Focus groups generally included four members of the working group engaging in conversation around specific prompts concerning the draft survey. In this September meeting we decided on one survey, multiple parts, to be distributed in the second quarter of the school year for responses. We discussed the need to clarify directions and provide examples. While the survey was an excellent first draft we identified the need to make answers more specific and offer the ability to prioritize issues that are important to educators.
We also discussed strategies to increase participation including a video invite. We volunteered the Commissioner to be our headliner to roll out the survey with a united front from leaders of all the education associations and groups, including teachers. We discussed the importance of providing dedicated time for educators to complete the survey and how we will reach out to leadership to request this time. With dedicated time and a high response rate we feel this will result in good policy to help change what is happening. Lastly, we discussed how the survey addresses recruitment and how we may still need to gather other information to support policy change at a state level concerning that topic in addition to retention.
July 28-29, 2020:
At the foundation of our work is the relationship of teacher retention to trust, student growth, and student learning. This month the working group discussed more recent, Alaska-focused research and looked at teacher retention and recruitment issues relevant today across the state. We looked at a plethora of research articles focused on leadership, systems, teacher preparation, recruitment, retention, and educator support. We recognized that many of the topics are not new, rather they have been discussed for a while and are being built upon. We considered how we need alignment and collaboration across the system, such as between K-12, higher education, and community, to address the educator retention and recruitment issues. In particular, we discussed the need for teaching through culture, or placed-based teaching, and how that looks different across the state since Alaska has communities with a predominantly single-culture and those that are multicultural. This connects to the need for community mentors in addition to teacher and principal mentors. In addition, the topic of supporting and developing leadership beyond just the superintendent and principal roles to develop shared leadership. The group also discussed revisiting and refining current solutions and not necessarily only considering new ones. The importance of increasing home-grown Alaskan educators remains an essential topic. We discussed cost-effectiveness of retaining teachers and the role of the retirement system in retention. Overall, the group encouraged developing multiple webs of support for educators at school/district, state, and community levels. We are interested in identifying areas of strengths and weaknesses connected to teacher retention to build stronger webs of support for educators, staff, leadership, and the system. By synthesizing ideas we started to curate detailed topics to go into the survey for the next stage of the group’s work.
Articles: July Reading List
Adams, B. L. & Covey, J. (2017). Research-based Educator Systems Support: General Report for Participating Districts, Nov. 17, 2017. Internal report. Coalition for Education Equity.
Adams, B. L. & Covey, J. (2018). Research-based Educator Systems Support: Report for Year-Long Pilot Study, Jun. 30, 2018. Internal report. Coalition for Education Equity.
Adams, B. L. & Woods, A. (2015). A Model for Recruiting and Retaining Teachers in Alaska’s Rural K-12 Schools. Peabody Journal of Education: Issues of Leadership, Policy, and Organizations, 90(2), 250-262.
Ault, P. C., Roccograndi, A., & Burke, A. (2017). Mentoring early career teachers in urban Alaska: Impact findings from the Investing in Innovation (i3) evaluation of the Alaska Statewide Mentor Project Urban Growth Opportunity. Portland, OR: Education Northwest.
Covey, J., Adams, B. L., & Wohlforth, C. (2015). Educator Quality and Quantity (Rep.). Anchorage, AK: CEEAC.
DeFeo, D. J., Hirshberg, D., & Hill, A. (2016). It's more than just dollars: Problematizing salary as the sole mechanism for recruiting and retaining teachers in rural Alaska. In Wellness & healing: Indigenous innovation & Alaska Native Research. Proceedings from the Alaska Native Studies Conference 2016. Anchorage, AK.
DeFeo, D. J., & Tran, T. C. (2019). Recruiting, hiring, and training Alaska’s rural teachers: How superintendents practice place-conscious leadership. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 35(2), 1-17. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.26209/jrre3502
DeFeo, D. J., & Tran, T. C. (2020). COVID-19’s spring 2020 school closures: The effect on teacher candidates. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Anchorage Center for Alaska Education Policy Research.
DeFeo, D. J., Tran, T. C., Hirshberg, D., Cope, D., & Cravez, P. (2017). The cost of teacher turnover in Alaska. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Anchorage Center for Alaska Education Policy Research.
Herbert, D. M. Q. (2012). Alaskan superintendent turnover: is there a correlation between anticipated turnover and the organizational culture of school boards in the state of Alaska (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Hill, A., & Hirshberg, D. (2013). Alaska teacher turnover, supply and demand: 2013 highlights. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Anchorage Center for Alaska Education Policy Research.
Hill, M. M. (2017). Schools in rural Alaska with higher rates of student achievement: a search for positive deviance in education (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Hirshberg, D., Berman, M., DeFeo, D. J., & Hill, A. (2015). Salary & benefits schedule and teacher tenure study. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Anchorage Center for Alaska Education Policy Research.
Hirshberg, D., Hill, A., & Kasemodel, C. (2014). Will they stay or will they go? Teacher perceptions of working conditions in rural Alaska. Poster presented at the Joint meeting of the Alaska State Board of Education & Early Development and the University of Alaska Regents. Anchorage, AK.
Johnson, M. A. (2012). Barriers to Ahtna Athabascans becoming public school educators (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Kaden, U., Patterson, P. P., Healy, J. & Adams, B. L. (2016). Stemming the revolving door: Teacher retention and attrition in Arctic Alaska schools. Global Education Review, 3(1), 129-147.
Kelly, K. A. (2013). The impact of teacher achievement emotions on the co-production of education services (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Leary, A., Tetpon, B., Hirshberg, D., & Hill, A. (2014). Alaska Native-focused teacher preparation programs. Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Anchorage Center for Alaska Education Policy Research.
LeDoux, L. S. (2012). Polishing the mirror: a multiple methods study of the relationship between teaching style and the application of technology in Alaska's rural one to one digital classrooms (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Levin, S. & Bradley, K. (2020). Understanding and addressing principal turnover. A Review of the Research: First report in the NASSP-LPI Principal Turnover Research Series. https://www.nassp.org/nassp-and-lpi-research-agenda/nassp-lpi-research-report/
Levin, S., Bradley, K., & Scott, C. (2020). Principal turnover: Insights from current principals. Research Brief: Second report in the NASSP-LPI Principal Turnover Research Series. https://www.nassp.org/nassp-and-lpi-research-agenda/nassp-lpi-research-report/
Levin, S., Scott, C., Yang, M., Leung, M., & Bradley, K. (2020). Supporting a strong, stable principal workforce: What matters and what can be done. Research Report: Third report in the NASSP-LPI Principal Turnover Research Series. https://www.nassp.org/nassp-and-lpi-research-agenda/nassp-lpi-research-report/
Littlebear, J. D. V. (2018). Teaching through culture in the K-12 classroom (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Rinio, D. (2018). The use of social network analysis by school librarians to evaluate and improve collaborative networks in their secondary schools: a pilot study (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
Tetpon, B., Hirshberg, D., & Hill, A. (2014). Alaska Native-focused teacher preparation programs: what have we learned? In Growing our own: Indigenous Research, Scholars, and Education. Proceedings from the Alaska Native Studies Conference 2015. Fairbanks, AK.
Vazquez C., M., Bel Hadj A., H., & Pierson, A. (2019). Educator retention and turnover under the midnight sun: Examining trends and relationships in teacher, principal, and superintendent movement in Alaska. Portland, OR: Education Northwest, Regional Educational Laboratory Northwest. https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ED598351
Vinlove, A. L. (2012). Learning to teach where you are: preparation for context-responsive teaching in Alaska's teacher certification programs (dissertation). ProQuest LLC, Ann Arbor, MI.
June 23-24, 2020:
The working group's purpose is to provide practical, professional, and policy recommendations for the Governor to solve the persistent teacher retention and recruitment issues in Alaska. We had discussions in small groups that were vibrant and robust, centered around nationwide trends and issues regarding mentoring, teacher preparation, retention factors, recruitment, and equity in education. Developing home grown teachers was discussed as one important avenue to recruiting and retaining teachers who are dedicated to Alaska's education system. The list of articles discussed by members is shown below. The older articles were specifically selected to also test out our process of making and sharing notes. We recognized that many of the nationwide trends are good to look at to start and now we need to bring it back to an Alaska focus and updated research. We plan to discuss another list of intended articles, shared below, when we come back together in July. We also discussed the potential of having guest speakers and the need to understand the resources we currently have in the state. We are also going to consider how COVID-19 impacts our conversation as well as our recruitment and retention efforts.
Articles: June Reading List
Darling-Hammond, L. (2007). The Flat Earth and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future. Educational Researcher, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 318-334
Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2010). Constrained Job Matching: Does Teacher Job Search Harm Disadvantaged Urban Schools? NBER Working Paper No. 15816. Retrieved from https://www.nber.org/papers/w15816
Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The Impact of Induction and Mentoring Programs for Beginning Teachers: A Critical Review of the Research. Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/127
Ingersoll, R., & May, H. (2011). Recruitment, Retention, and the Minority Teacher Shortage. CPRE Research Report # RR-69. Retrieved from https://www.cpre.org/publications
Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L. & May, H. (2012). Retaining Teachers: How Preparation Matters. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ988729
McDiarmid, G. W., Larson, E., & Hill, A. (2002). Retaining Quality Teachers for Alaska. Report for UA and AK DEED. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED474247
Friday, May 29, 2020 - Kick Off Meeting:
- Completed introductions and agreed on norms for collaboration.
- Cast the vision and purpose for the working group.
- Set norms for how to conduct the work and share insights.